Some of the Baby Standards were stronger than others. Others decided to market a new brand, or a brand from before the Standard days. The other Standards eagerly divided the rights to these new markets, carrying the Standard banner into the Rocky Mountains, the South Central US and the North Central Atlantic states. Add in a few corporate consolidations, and the Standard brand name was in use in across the nation, causing confusion among radio audiences and headaches for programming directors. After one Standard lost its exclusive marketing rights through inattention in the late 1920's, all the Standards were more wary of trademark infringment.
Standard Oil Company of New York (Socony) merged with Vacuum Oil Company in 1931, becoming Socony-Vacuum. The primary gasoline sold by the company was Vacuum's Mobilgas and Socony's pegasus logo was chosen as the symbol. Mobil Sekiyu (Japan) was the first to color the Mobil pegasus red @1933. Expansion fever did not quell with the Vacuum merger, and in 1934 Independent Oil of Altoona, PA and Metro Oil of Jamestown, NY were added to the company. Socony was also the first 'Standard' to lose exclusive rights to the Standard name. Colonial Beacon Oil Company started selling Esso fuel in Socony's territory, but no one noticed till it was too late. I have a 1932 NY map has the phrase "SOCONY IS STANDARD", but by then the damage from Esso / Jersey Standard had been done. In 1933, Socony and Esso formed a joint venture in the Far East - Standard-Vacuum or StanVac. Socony kept merging, purchasing California's Gilmore Oil Company in 1940, its Red Lion brand was not phased out till the end of WW II.
Atlantic Refining declined to exercise its exclusive rights to Standard in Pennsylvania and Delaware, marketing itself as Atlantic in all its markets. It did retain Polarine Motor Oil in its marketing region.
Standard Oil of New Jersey became known as Jersey Standard or "Standard", and marketed their main grade of gas as Esso. Esso became the downstream identity of Jersey Standard in the 1930's with "Standard" above it on the signs out front. Humble was used to market in Texas. Jersey Standard acquired the Colonial Beacon Oil Company in 1931 and used it to market fuel in Socony territory. Socony did not complain when 'Esso fuel' started to show up at Colonial Beacon, and could not protest when the stations were re-branded Esso. In 1933, Socony and Esso formed a joint venture in the Far East - Standard-Vacuum or StanVac. Standard Oil of Louisiana was offically absorbed by Jersey Standard in 1944. Jersey Standard also managed to acquire Arkansas and the rest of Louisiana from Waters-Pierce or its purchaser, Sinclair Oil. From 1935 to 1937, Tidewater Oil and Skelly Oil were Jersey controlled. Other exrtraterritorial arms in the late 1930's and early 1940's ended up including Grizzly, Litening, and Powerine. Grizzly and Litening were re-branded Oval-E from 1946 to 1950, when they were re-re-branded Carter. A common corporate symbol emerged in the early days of Esso, the Tiger that is still used in modern times by Esso and Exxon.
Standard Oil of Ohio (Sohio) acquired Solar Refining Company in 1931. Sohio was on the signs, Standard Oil of Ohio on the buildings. Some Sohio signs even had a banner reading "Standard Oil" below the oval and diamond logo. Canfield Oil was purchased by Sohio, as was it's Wm. Penn brand.
Standard Oil of Kentucky (Kyso) did not change. The signs out front read "Standard Oil Products" or "Standard Oil Company". Esso and Mobiloil products were sold as well as the Crown brands of Gasoline, acting like a jobber (marketer) for Esso / Jersey Standard. The maps dropped "KYSO" in the late 1940's.
Standard Oil of Indiana expanded into Standard-less southern Missouri and purchased distrubtion rights to Oklahoma from H.A. Williamson & Company. Stanolind was the name given to its exclusive products. In 1933, American Oil was purchased by Indiana Standard controlled Pan-Am. Mexican Petroleum and Pan-Am stations along the Atlantic seaboard were rebranded Amoco. while the Pan-Am brand remained in the south central US. Indiana Standard also acquired the rights to Montana, Wyoming, and Colorado from Conoco. There was a strong alliance with Nebraska Standard. The torch was still the corporate logo. The signs out front read "Standard Service".
Sinclair Oil did not exercise any of the rights it acquired from Waters-Pierce to use Standard in its territories. Those were divided between Indiana Standard, Esso, and Socal. Sinclair acquired another former Standard Oil Company, Prairie Oil & Gas Company, in 1932. In 1935, it acquired nearly bankrupt Richfield Oil of New York and operated it as if it was simply a eastern version of its parent, Richfield Oil of California.
Standard Oil of Nebraska was strongly allied with Indiana Standard, which enveloped it and supplied it. It still retained a unique identity and ball-and-bar logo. It was acquired by Indiana Standard in 1939. The bar-and-ball Nebraska Standard signage was replaced with Indiana Standard torch-and-ovals during the late 1940's.
Continental Oil Company (Conoco) did not exercise its rights to market as Standard. Socal and Indiana Standard split the rights to 'Standard' in Conoco's territory. Marland's transcontinental reach made acquisition unnecessary for Conoco. Conoco's biggest claim to fame was the Conoco Travel Bureau, second only to AAA in promoting pleasure travel. In 1950, Conoco pulled back from the US east coast, leasing its refineries and stations to Cities Service (Citgo).
Standard Oil of California (Socal) introduced the red / white/ blue chevron logo in 1931. The company expanded, acquiring the rights to Idaho, Utah, and New Mexico from Conoco. Socal acquired the 'Standard' rights in Texas from Waters-Pierce or its purchaser, Sinclair Oil. Idaho and Utah were added to the California Standard territory. Pasotex's operations in New Mexico and Texas were joined to become the wholly-owned subsidiary, Standard Oil of Texas. They expanded into Canada in 1935 as Standard Oil of British Columbia. The three-tiered chevron was used as a logo and by Socal and an identifying name by its extraterritorial arm, Calso (The California Company). They entered a joint venture with Texaco in 1936: Caltex, to market in Australia, the Far East, and in Europe. Monogram Manufacturing Company of Perth Amboy, NJ was purchased in 1945.
Among the other former Standard companies:
Standard Oil pre-1911 . Standard Oil in 1911 . Standard Oil in 1941 . Standard Oil in 1961 . Standard Oil Today . Standard Oil Worldwide
If you any have thoughts, comments, additions, or suggestions, Click here to E-mail Robert V. Droz, who maintains this site.
page first posted July 12, 2001.
This page last edited Thursday, February 15, 2007
"Travel More - for less!" - Standard (Kentucky) slogan
LEGAL NOTE: The use of oil company logos and names on this website is meant to educate, illustrate and clarify, and is not meant as a challenge to the copyrights of the companies represented on this site, their predecessors, or their successors. Research and commentary © 2004 R.V. Droz.